Coffee is an international name given to a type of plants, and to the drink, which is extracted from this plant. And coffee plant trees is Herbal and characterized by its small size and medium height, but it is becoming higher and higher as it gets older, until it reaches a height of six meters.
There are thirty species of coffee plant, but the best known and most popular Arab coffee. There is also another type called solid- coffee (Coffee Robusta). Both types constitute 99% of global production.
It is believed that the origin of the coffee plant was in Ethiopia, and then moved to the Arab region, especially in Yemen since the fourteenth century. Arabs are the first who find a way to draw the drink coffee from it. The coffee trees are characterized by their bright green oval leaves, and white scented desired flowers. The fruit, is red like a cherry, and grows in clusters of beautiful shape, and contain a small green seeds (coffee seeds) are a sweet fabric (pulp) fills the fruit. The soil should be rich for the growth of coffee plant and should be fertilized in rich nitrate. As the appropriate range of temperature for growth should be averaged between 13-26° C. And grow in a good degree of high quality in the high fields. Each tree produces nearly half kilogram of coffee beans, most of which are collected manually. Trees harvesting does not begin before five years of planting. However, the production will continue thereafter for a period ranging between 15-20 years.
Coffee planting had not received a significant interest until the end of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the sixteenth century, when planted heavily in Yemen. Europeans have known the use of coffee in the middle of the seventeenth century; it emerged after intensive coffee plantations in Indonesia and the West Indies, Brazil, and then became a popular export trade coffee in the world since then. The capital used in the production of coffee, processing and trade of the top investment for any drink in the world in the modern era. Most of the world production comes from Africa and Central and South America.
The United States is the most country that importing coffee, where the person consumption is about one hundred liters of coffee per year.
To prepare a coffee drink, fruits should be dried, coffee pulp should remove and harvested. In areas of high humidity, fruits soaked from water first, and then pulp removes and dries. The coffee taste is different from one place to another, and may differ depending on the terrain or the type of fertilizer used.
For a special taste of coffee, green beans should be roasted by hot air which ranged between 200 260 C for five minutes in a circular cylinder without exposure to direct flame. The more roasting the more color becomes dark and the taste of coffee becomes more strong.
Then coffee is mixed with some spices, or with other seeds to give it the desirable flavors. There are many books and encyclopedias in the types of coffee, roasting methods, grounding, and preparation for either drink, or to be added to sweet or other foods.
Coffee contains many of chemicals that do not change its nature even by roasting, but some of these materials may be changed chemically transformed into aromatic compound gives the distinctive smell of coffee. When dealing with roasted coffee beans with water, many of the chemicals were extracted, such as: caffeine, and some amino acids, carbohydrates, and minerals. And caffeine is the substance which is responsible for the stimulant effect of coffee.
Molecule of caffeine contains 8 carbon atoms and 10 hydrogen atoms, and 4 atoms of nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. And caffeine are colorless, tasteless it has a similar chemical characteristics Alkaline, as it is known by its activated effect and it is non-harmful to humans, if he drinks it in low doses but If consumed too much, it increases the heart rate, and makes them irregular, which would be offered to heart disease. In addition, caffeine reduces blood flow to the brain, which makes the human unable to sleep. On the other hand, it increases the effectiveness of caffeine by the other hand caffeine increases the sedative substances such as aspirin for headaches, and the expansion of the Pulmonary, so it decreases Asthma. Also it is found that this substance dismissing insects; so it enters in the composition of chemicals used in agricultural insecticides. In general, doctors recommend not to drink more than six cups of coffee, or tea, or soft drinks containing cola per day, due to increase by caffeine.
There are many types of coffee. In addition to coffee made from green beans, roasted beans, or Ground (coffee), there is what is known as a Melted coffee; where is coffee mixed with hot water and then left a long time , after that the drink should be Filtered and dried , to become a brown powder in color, and packaged after deflating it. This method gives the possibility to prepare a cup of coffee with remarkable speed. This type of coffee known as (instant coffee).
There is also a commercial type of coffee, free of caffeine (Decaffeinated Coffee), as caffeine Removes by soaking green beans in chlorinated hydrocarbons, then roasting seeds after that. This method preserved the distinctive taste of coffee, and removes most of the damage caffeine. It has been developed for some types of coffee plant that contains a very small percentage of caffeine which has been used commercially.
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